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The second phase is referred to as Nadugannada (Middle-Kannada) phase - 12th century AD to 18th century AD: This phase is marked by some notable transitions and evolution of new forms in literature. The great grammatical works such as Keshiraja’s Shabdamanidarpana and Nagavarma’s Karnataka Bhashabhushana are the products of this age. Harihara and Raghavanka coined the Champoo, Shatpadi, Ragale forms in verse (12th and 13th century AD). The strong Brahmanical hold over literature was shaken due to many emerging non-Brahmanical writers. Social and religious reformers such as Sarvajna, Basaveshwara, Allama and Akkamahadevi produced a unique literature known as Vachana literature (12th century AD). Bhakti movement flourished in Karnataka under Purandaradasa, Kanakadasa, Jagannathadasa and Vijayadasa; a new literature known as Haridasa literature came into form (16th and 17th century AD). This also influenced the Carnatic style of music.

 

 

The latest phase is Hosagannada (New Kannada) phase - (18th century onwards): The romantic literature by Muddana is the most enchanting work of this period (19th century AD). Sri Ramashvamedam is his renowned work. Literary works by Panje Mangesharaya are note worthy. The modern writers such as Govinda Pai, Kuvempu, Masthi, Bendre, Shivarama Karanth, V K Gokak, Tejasvi, G S Shivarudrappa, S L Bhyrappa and Nissar Ahmed have produced remarkable literature and have held Kannada’s esteem at high. Claiming 8 Jnanpith awards; the highest literary award in India, Kannada has been scaling new heights and growing abundantly as an inclusive and highly adaptive modern language.

 

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